Most published data indicate that males utilize more carbohydrate and amino acid substrates for metabolism, while females utilize more fatty acids. Reprod Fertil Dev. Importantly, the numbers of mutant p53 carriers were equivalent between males and females, suggesting that males and females have differential responses to the same mutations in p53, leading to greater risk of cancer development in females.
The horizontal line within the box represents the median. On average, and after the end of pubertymales have darker hair than females and according to most studies they also have darker skin—male skin is also redder, but this is due to greater blood volume rather than melanin. Example of presence versus absence of nuptial pads on DGFs.
Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Comparing body size measurements between in situ and biological sex differences in St. Louis situ populations is further complicated by the fact that animals biological sex differences in St. Louis in a captive setting are fed a constant diet, whereas animals in situ may have more variable weights due to availability of prey.
Annual cycles of urinary reproductive steroid concentrations in wild and captive endangered Fijian ground frogs Platymantis vitiana Gen Comp Endocrinol. Other physical differences between the sexes, such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics, are frequently seen only on males, with nuptial pads and vocal sacs being two of the most distinguishing characteristics in male anurans [ 7 ].
Patterns of hormonal seasonality for the DGF are difficult to assess based on the results of biological sex differences in St. Louis study because the DGFs had received exogenous hormone therapy for reproductive purposes, and it is not known how these treatments may have affected seasonal profiles.
In this study, data for the subsequent sex identification techniques body size, secondary sex characteristics, ultrasonography, and urine samples for hormone analysis were collected prior to the start of the exogenous hormone treatments, or when possible, prior to the administration of hormone treatments in the fall and spring months.
Infectious disease prevalence varies - this is largely due to cultural and exposure factors. Sex differences in social capital are differences between men and women in their ability to coordinate actions and achieve their aims through trust, norms and networks.
Males and females have different sex organs. Cecilia J.
Williams TJ. Given the large body of literature demonstrating sex differences in mitochondrial activity and ROS accumulation, it is likely that targeting ROS might have different effects in men and women with cancer. Cell Res. Cancer Causes Control.